Expedition Exchange Bulletin Boards  

Go Back   Expedition Exchange Bulletin Boards > General
User Name
Password
FAQ Members List Calendar Mark Forums Read


Reply
 
Thread Tools Display Modes
  #26  
Old June 4th, 2007, 01:50 PM
skippy3k skippy3k is offline
Scott Kirn
 
Join Date: Mar 2005
Posts: 126
I'm two chapters into Einstein: His Life and Universe by Walter Isaacson. I should know something in a couple of weeks.

One thing I did learn; the whole rumor that Einstein failed math as a kid is completely false. He excelled in math, although he wasn't as good in French. What he didn't do well with was the structured learning process that most schools follow.
Reply With Quote
  #27  
Old June 4th, 2007, 02:14 PM
nosivad_bor nosivad_bor is offline
Rob Davison
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Location: Pittsburgh, PA
Posts: 1,019
I guess thats the point to the whole glazing over john. They just brush past relativity as if its some kids shit. They need to talk about how profound that shit was, It wasn't just about gravity.

I guess in the end I am more interested in the effects of these theories than the theories them self.


Rob
Reply With Quote
  #28  
Old June 4th, 2007, 02:14 PM
dannydisco dannydisco is offline
Daniel Long
 
Join Date: Mar 2007
Location: New Mexico
Posts: 65
Quote:
Originally Posted by johnlee
I had always thought that E=mc2 was a part of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity?

Is E=mc2 something else?

Ok, here's the background, Einstein first came out with his "Special Theory of Relativity". Special (or specific) relativity came about as a response to the Michelson-Morley Experiment of 1887 that gave the solution that light moves at the same speed regardless as to frame of reference and (as Einstein and others would later clarrify) light exists as a dual substance of particle/wave.

This gave Einstein some fits based on a gedankenexperiment that if an object (let's say a space ship) is moving through space at close to the speed of light has a light source (let's say a laser, something Albert never got to see). Now if we take this laser and shine it at a mirror across the spaceship we'll see it come back and strike the wall next to us on our side of the ship. This makes perfect sense in our frame of reference (FOR). But then you realize that this ship is moving at many thousands of km/s, thus the light actually must travel further than if at rest, it must move in a triangular path, but the time it takes to cross the ship is the same at all velocities.

In other words (Velocity = distance / time) the light has the same velocity, and covers the ground in the same time, but travels a "longer" distance. Old school folks just said this worked out b/c light moved at different speeds in different inertial FOR's, but Einstein now knew that light always had the same velocity, thus, he surmised that lengths must shorten at an object approaches the speed of light and that time must also change. Namely this "Special Theory of Relativity" dealt with how distance (length contraction), time (time dilation), and momentum changed at great speed.

The change in momentum required the different type of energy I described in the earlier post. This total and kinetic energy are now realitive (often refered to as relativistic energy), but make little difference in our comparitively slow world. The "easiest" way to prove the accuracy of these new energies is to take a very large spring and compress it, thus adding potential energy to the system and weigh it very very very precisely it will actually weight more (a ten thousandth of a kg maybe?) than it did before hand.

Famously, Einstein arrived at his two postulates from his mental wanderings:

1) The laws of physics must be obeyed in all inertial reference frames.

2) The speed of light is c (299,792,458 m/s) irregardless as to the motion of the light source.


Einstein's "General Theory of Relativity" is a surprisingly different animal. Like the "Special Theory of Relativity" it came from a thought experiment dealing with an Apollo style booster coming off the surface of a planet and the weight of the objects inside of the ship. It includes basically reworking Newton's ideas of gravity and helps explain how gravity affects things like photons, with zero rest mass, that are affected by gravity, such as when light is "bent" around the gravity field of a star. It also birthed the nifty images of planets sitting in and bending down the "fabric of space-time" often illustrated with a grid.

Thus E(total)=Gamma*mc^2 is a part of Einstein's "Special Theory of Relativity", but also holds true in his "General Theory of Relativity" although it's not a prime equation in the theory. The equation holds its imporance because it realigned how we look at energy and mass, he proved that they are one and the same. Also, if you notice that c (the speed of light) is huge, ~3 x 10^8 m/s before being squared you realize that a very small amount of matter is capable of prodcing huge amounts of energy, namely "nuclear" or "atomic" energy.
Attached Images
File Type: jpg space.jpg (26.9 KB, 18 views)
Reply With Quote
  #29  
Old January 28th, 2008, 01:50 PM
nosivad_bor nosivad_bor is offline
Rob Davison
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Location: Pittsburgh, PA
Posts: 1,019
Smash! The Search for 'Sparticles'
By Clara Moskowitz
Staff Writer
posted: 28 January 2008
05:48 am ET

http://www.space.com/scienceastronom...particles.html

Squarks, photinos, selectrons, neutralinos. These are just a few types of supersymmetric particles, a special brand of particle that may be created when the world's most powerful atom smasher goes online this spring.

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a particle physics lab called the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, will very likely change our understanding of the universe forever. The 17-mile-long underground particle accelerator will send protons flying around its circular track until they smash into each other going faster than 99 percent of the speed of light. When the particles impact, they will unleash energies similar to those in the universe shortly after the Big Bang, the theoretical beginning of time.

Scientists don't know exactly what to expect from the LHC, but they anticipate its energetic collisions will create exotic particles that physicists have so far only dreamed of.

Many researchers are hoping to see supersymmetric particles, called sparticles for short. Sparticles are predicted by supersymmetry theory, which posits that for every particle we know of, there is a sister particle that we have not yet discovered. For example, the superpartner to the electron is the selectron, the partner to the quark is the squark and the partner to the photon is the photino.

Closing in

Recently, researchers at Northeastern University have clarified what kind of sparticles the LHC might find. There are about 10,000 possibilities for the pattern of the first four lightest sparticles that might be created, said Pran Nath, a Northeastern theoretical physicist who is working on producing sparticles at the LHC. But after studying experimental astrophysical data, and the predictions of certain theoretical models, Nath and his collaborators, Daniel Feldman and Zuowei Liu, reduced the number of possible patterns down to 16.

"If these assumptions are correct, we can say in what order these sparticles will be created," Nath told SPACE.com. "So we tried to look for the signatures of these sparticles."

If the LHC produces sparticles, researchers will not be able to observe them first-hand because they will decay too quickly. The scientists can only hope to identify the signatures of supersymmetric particles by studying the jets of regular particles produced when sparticles disintegrate.

"It is important to know how the sparticles will be ordered in mass because different theories lead to different patterns," Nath said. "So this means that if we see those patterns, we may be able to extrapolate back to a theory."

The LHC will begin testing in April. It will produce the first preliminary data later this year.

Where have they gone?

When sparticles were first imagined, scientists wondered why we don't observe them in the universe now. The explanation, they think, is that sparticles are much heavier than their normal sister particles, so they have all disintegrated.

"The heavier an unstable particle is, the shorter its lifetime," Nath said. "So as soon as it is produced it begins to decay."

Creating sparticles requires an extreme amount of energy the likes of which only existed shortly after the Big Bang, and perhaps in the LHC.

Physicists are not sure why sparticles don't have the same mass as particles, but they speculate that the symmetry could have been broken in some hidden sector of the universe that we cannot see or touch, but could only feel gravitationally.

Dark matter and strings

If supersymmetry truly exists, it could help solve a few nagging problems in physics.

For one thing, the theory may offer an explanation for dark matter the mysterious stuff in the universe that astronomers can detect gravitationally, but not see.

"The most popular supersymmetric theories predict the existence of a stable supersymmetric particle, the neutralino," said Enrico Lunghi, a theoretical physicist at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Chicago. "This is an excellent candidate for dark matter. The problem is that we haven't seen any. It's another good reason for hoping to find supersymmetry at the LHC."

Neutralinos may be the lightest sparticles, so they might be able to exist in nature without decaying immediately.

Supersymmetry also helps resolve the fundamental problems between physics at the very small scale of particles (quantum physics) and physics at the very large scale, where Einstein's general relativity takes over.

"It's a necessary step in solving the discrepancy between the standard model [of particle physics] and gravity," Lunghi said. "It can be a very important ingredient in eventually having a theory of everything."

Additionally, if supersymmetry is proven correct, it could offer a boost to string theory, which includes the concept of supersymmetry. However, supersymmetry could still exist even if string theory is wrong.

"Supersymmetry can exist with or without string theory," Nath said, "but it would be very encouraging for string theory if sparticles are observed. If they don't find any sparticles then it's not good news for supersymmetry or string theory."

Unproven

Some scientists are skeptical about whether supersymmetry exists and whether LHC will be able to prove it.

"Supersymmetry is a very beautiful idea," said Alvaro de Rujula, a theoretical physicist at CERN, "but it's hard for me to believe that it is not only true in nature but exists at this energy. It may be true but inaccessible to this machine."

Even if the LHC produced sparticles, de Rujula said, it would only create a few of them and the signatures could be difficult to identify.

"People will jump to conclusions, but it won't be so easy to tell if they are really supersymmetric," he said. "It may take some luck to have a convincing case for supersymmetry at the LHC."

For many physicists, the possibility of not finding what they are looking for is exciting, too.

"It's better when we are wrong than when we are right," de Rujula said. "Things are really interesting when we don't understand them. That's a good position for a scientist."
____________________
-Rob
1999 Discovery 1

Reply With Quote
  #30  
Old March 1st, 2008, 05:08 PM
nosivad_bor nosivad_bor is offline
Rob Davison
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Location: Pittsburgh, PA
Posts: 1,019
Physics lab completes world's largest jigsaw puzzle

By Stephanie Nebehay Fri Feb 29, 11:05 AM ET

http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20080229/...ence_cern_dc_2

Quote:
GENEVA (Reuters) - A 100-tonne wheel, the last piece of an ambitious experiment that scientists hope will help unlock the secrets of the universe, was successfully lowered into an underground cavern on Friday.

Quote:
"Soon the first protons will be smashed together and the secrets of our universe will begin to unravel," CERN said.

____________________
-Rob
1999 Discovery 1

Reply With Quote
  #31  
Old August 29th, 2008, 01:30 PM
mtnrovr mtnrovr is offline
Ryan Tolentino
 
Join Date: Aug 2005
Posts: 174
12 more days and counting....

____________________
2001 Discovery
2001 F650 GS

Reply With Quote
  #32  
Old August 29th, 2008, 06:33 PM
nosivad_bor nosivad_bor is offline
Rob Davison
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Location: Pittsburgh, PA
Posts: 1,019
i love it . lol
____________________
-Rob
1999 Discovery 1

Reply With Quote
  #33  
Old September 3rd, 2008, 11:36 AM
benlittle benlittle is offline
Ben Little
KF7FVH
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: Salt Lake City
Posts: 353
Alpinekat... Sweet.
Reply With Quote
  #34  
Old September 24th, 2008, 05:07 PM
DJ Menasco DJ Menasco is offline
DJ Menasco
 
Join Date: May 2004
Location: Portland, OR
Posts: 158
It appears as if we'll have to wait another year for any secrets.
Reply With Quote
  #35  
Old September 25th, 2008, 08:23 AM
blue blue is offline
Bill Gill, aka chump hater
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Location: Scottsdale, Arizona
Posts: 808
"That is exactly what seems to have happened as physicists passed 8,000 amps into a sector of the LHC's 27-kilometre underground ring. A cable feeding current between two of the LHC's beam-focusing quadrupole magnets suddenly heated to above superconducting temperatures and melted. The failure seems to have happened at a joint where two sections of cable were spliced together. Tens of thousands of joints run around the LHC and many of them had already been tested without incident.

The failure caused the liquid helium that was being used to cool the magnets to boil off, apparently rupturing the machine and releasing as much as a tonne of the gas into the LHC tunnels. During testing the tunnels are evacuated and no injuries were reported."


LOL....a failed weld. These boys are playing with some serious toys.
____________________
Blue
2004 D2

Reply With Quote
  #36  
Old April 20th, 2009, 11:30 AM
nosivad_bor nosivad_bor is offline
Rob Davison
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Location: Pittsburgh, PA
Posts: 1,019
Physicist Stephen Hawking very ill and in hospital

Physicist Stephen Hawking very ill and in hospital


http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20090420/...tain_hawking_6

LONDON (Reuters) Physicist Stephen Hawking, the author of "A Brief History of Time" who is almost completely paralyzed by motor neurone disease, has been urgently admitted to hospital, Cambridge University said on Monday.

Hawking, 67, was taken by ambulance to a local hospital in Cambridge, where he teaches as a professor of applied mathematics and theoretical physics.

"Professor Hawking is very ill and has been taken by ambulance to Addenbrooke's Hospital," the university said....
____________________
-Rob
1999 Discovery 1

Reply With Quote
  #37  
Old October 26th, 2009, 04:42 PM
Matt Kendrick Matt Kendrick is offline
Matt Kendrick
KI6CGL
 
Join Date: May 2005
Location: Garden Grove, CA
Posts: 314
Reply With Quote
  #38  
Old November 22nd, 2009, 05:17 PM
Matt Kendrick Matt Kendrick is offline
Matt Kendrick
KI6CGL
 
Join Date: May 2005
Location: Garden Grove, CA
Posts: 314
LHC in Boston Globe's "the big picture"
Reply With Quote
  #39  
Old November 22nd, 2009, 07:09 PM
nosivad_bor nosivad_bor is offline
Rob Davison
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Location: Pittsburgh, PA
Posts: 1,019
Quote:
Originally Posted by Matt Kendrick
LHC in Boston Globe's "the big picture"


That is the hands down best photo collection I have seen on the LHC everyone should click that link.

Here are some teasers:







____________________
-Rob
1999 Discovery 1

Reply With Quote
  #40  
Old November 23rd, 2009, 05:11 AM
ronward ronward is offline
KI4WWU
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Columbus, GA
Posts: 687
I'm guessing a Milgauss would be the watch to have in and around that thing.
____________________
Ron Ward
2004 Discovery
& a couple nice watches

Reply With Quote
  #41  
Old November 23rd, 2009, 03:22 PM
stu454 stu454 is offline
Stuart Ivie
 
Join Date: Jun 2005
Location: Atlanta, GA
Posts: 946
Is that the Death Star?
____________________
Stu

Reply With Quote
  #42  
Old November 23rd, 2009, 05:44 PM
nosivad_bor nosivad_bor is offline
Rob Davison
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Location: Pittsburgh, PA
Posts: 1,019
Forgot to post this sooner.

Seems most appropriate here.

____________________
-Rob
1999 Discovery 1

Reply With Quote
  #43  
Old June 29th, 2010, 05:21 PM
read read is offline
Read Kerlin
KI6CSI
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Location: Los Angeles
Posts: 274
Reply With Quote
  #44  
Old November 17th, 2010, 09:57 PM
greghirst greghirst is offline
Greg Hirst
KI6CQL
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Posts: 2,046
Antimatter secrets one step closer:

http://www.nature.com/news/2010/1011...l/468355a.html
Reply With Quote
  #45  
Old February 14th, 2011, 06:03 PM
greghirst greghirst is offline
Greg Hirst
KI6CQL
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Posts: 2,046
Interesting-ignore the crappy ads:

Reply With Quote
  #46  
Old July 30th, 2012, 04:25 PM
johnlee johnlee is offline
John Lee
K6YJ
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Location: Torrance, CA
Posts: 12,536
I thought this was a good documentary:


This may be old news to you guys, but it showed me the practical significance of that accelerator.
Reply With Quote
  #47  
Old January 15th, 2013, 08:19 PM
johnlee johnlee is offline
John Lee
K6YJ
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Location: Torrance, CA
Posts: 12,536


Reply With Quote
  #48  
Old September 27th, 2013, 08:58 AM
nosivad_bor nosivad_bor is offline
Rob Davison
 
Join Date: Sep 2003
Location: Pittsburgh, PA
Posts: 1,019
____________________
-Rob
1999 Discovery 1

Reply With Quote
Reply


Thread Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

vB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is On
Forum Jump


All times are GMT -8. The time now is 09:11 AM.




Copyright 2001-2012 Expedition Exchange Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Powered by vBulletin Version 3.5.4
Copyright ©2000 - 2014, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.